Molecular Biology on the Vitamin D Receptor

Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in many processes which have been important for general homeostasis. VDRs are found in a variety of cellular material, including monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D radio is a indivisible receptor that is stimulated by the vitamin D hormone. This can be a receptor that varieties a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor. The holding of the calciferol complex with the RXR brings about the service of a lot of intracellular signaling pathways. These kinds of pathways generate immediate responses independent of the transcriptional response of target genes.

VDRs are also thought to mediate the effects of calciferol on cuboid maintenance. This is supported by the relationship between bone tissue density and VDR radio alleles in human beings. In addition , a number of VDR target genes have been completely identified, which includes calcium-binding healthy proteins, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies own investigated the word of VDR in various areas. For instance, confocal microscopy has revealed VDR nuclear staining in human bande cells. In addition , VDR has been recognized in bright white matter oligodendrocytes. These studies have triggered the speculation that calcium-dependent platelet activation may be regulated by speedy non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been implicated in dangerous calcium homeostasis in the intestinal tract. However , the exact mechanism is not as yet known. Various factors, including environmental exposures and genetic elements, may control VDR term.

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